Festuca Tourn. ex L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 73 (1753) 


Notes: Distribution: Temp. & Subtrop. to Trop. Mts.

General Description

HABIT Perennial (615/615). Rhizomes absent (547), or short (50), or elongated (36). Stolons absent (614), or present (10). Culms erect (288/316), or geniculately ascending (55/316), or decumbent (4/316); robust (19/86), or of moderate stature (31/86), or slender (42/86); 2.5-49.14-260 cm long; firm (618), or wiry (3); without nodal roots (55/56), or rooting from lower nodes (1/56). Culm-internodes terete (75/76), or channelled (1/76). Culm-nodes constricted (5/6), or swollen (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (195/197), or ample (2/197). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (280/418), or tubular for much of their length (141/418). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (494), or erect (122), or falcate (7). Ligule an eciliate membrane (463), or a ciliolate membrane (157), or a ciliate membrane (1), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent (610), or deciduous at the ligule (11); aciculate (12), or filiform (373), or linear (240); herbaceous (572), or coriaceous (49); stiff (132), or firm (480), or flaccid (30); without exudate (564), or pruinose (65). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (41/59), or evident (24/59), or conspicuous (5/59). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (619), or with obscure cross veins (2). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (3/4), or rectangular ribs (1/4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (580), or pungent (44). INFLORESCENCE Bisexual (610), or monoecious (2), or dioecious (9). Inflorescence a panicle, or comprising only a few spikelets (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (620), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (618), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (482/619), or contracted (154/619), or spiciform (6/619). Primary panicle branches not whorled (619), or whorled at most nodes (2). Spikelets appressed (5/6), or ascending (1/6); solitary (614/615), or in pairs (1/615). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (615/615). Pedicels filiform (3/3); tip rectangular (5/13), or widened (9/13). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 0-4-13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (109/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (406/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3-9.199-40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (54/58), or pubescent (1/58), or pilose (3/58). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (67/80), or sparsely hairy (3/80), or pubescent (7/80), or pilose (5/80). GLUMES Glumes persistent (619/619); shorter than spikelet (614/616), or reaching apex of florets (3/616), or exceeding apex of florets (1/616); thinner than fertile lemma (10), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (611); parallel to lemmas (620), or gaping (1). Lower glume subulate (5/616), or linear (52/616), or lanceolate (539/616), or elliptic (10/616), or oblong (13/616), or ovate (14/616), or obovate (1/616); 0.33-0.752-9 length of upper glume; hyaline (14/616), or membranous (74/616), or chartaceous (520/616), or herbaceous (10/616), or scarious (14/616), or cartilaginous (1/616), or coriaceous (17/616); without keels (597/611), or 1-keeled (16/611); 1 -veined (596/613), or 2 -veined (15/613), or 3 -veined (31/613), or 4-5 -veined (1/613). Lower glume lateral veins absent (583), or obscure (6), or distinct (42); without ribs (47/48), or ribbed (1/48). Lower glume surface smooth (553), or asperulous (40), or scabrous (43); glabrous (608), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4). Lower glume apex truncate (2/614), or obtuse (27/614), or acute (536/614), or acuminate (71/614), or attenuate (4/614), or setaceously attenuate (3/614); muticous (612/614), or mucronate (2/614), or awned (1/614). Upper glume linear (29/616), or lanceolate (501/616), or elliptic (24/616), or oblong (57/616), or ovate (80/616), or obovate (3/616); 0.33-0.8138-8.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (7/616), or membranous (55/616), or chartaceous (531/616), or herbaceous (2/616), or scarious (14/616), or coriaceous (13/616); with undifferentiated margins (559), or hyaline margins (15), or membranous margins (12), or scarious margins (35); without keels (600/616), or 1-keeled (16/616); 1 -veined (18/604), or 2 -veined (7/604), or 3 -veined (589/604), or 4 -veined (10/604), or 5 -veined (13/604). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (609/610), or ribbed (1/610). Upper glume surface smooth (541), or asperulous (44), or scabrous (53); glabrous (606), or puberulous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (4). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/613), or truncate (2/613), or obtuse (57/613), or acute (417/613), or acuminate (159/613), or attenuate (5/613), or setaceously attenuate (3/613); muticous (610/616), or mucronate (5/616), or awned (3/616); 1 -awned (3/3). FLORETS Fertile florets bisexual (612), or female (9). Fertile lemma linear (7/616), or lanceolate (327/616), or elliptic (74/616), or oblong (192/616), or ovate (52/616), or orbicular (1/616); membranous (41/616), or chartaceous (563/616), or herbaceous (4/616), or scarious (4/616), or coriaceous (10/616); of similar consistency above (610), or much thinner above (11); of similar consistency on margins (593), or much thinner on margins (28); without keel (591/612), or keeled (21/612); 1-2 -veined (1/613), or 3 -veined (16/613), or 4 -veined (10/613), or 5 -veined (605/613), or 6-7 -veined (4/613). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (594), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (22); eciliate (620), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (37/63), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (7/63), or distinct (7/63), or prominent (12/63). Lemma surface smooth (369), or granulose (2), or asperulous (22), or scaberulous (132), or scabrous (132), or papillose (5), or punctate (1); glabrous (572), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (37), or pilose (6), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Lemma margins flat (620), or involute (1); eciliate (597), or ciliolate (12), or ciliate (23), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (596), or erose (4), or dentate (27); 2 -fid (25/27), or 3 -fid (2/27), or 4 -fid (1/27); emarginate (12/569), or obtuse (18/569), or acute (330/569), or acuminate (211/569), or attenuate (14/569), or setaceously attenuate (9/569), or cuspidate (2/569); without ornament (616), or scabrous (4), or pubescent (1); muticous (206), or pungent (1), or mucronate (105), or awned (454); 0 -awned (1/452), or 1 -awned (452/452). Principal lemma awn apical (476/505), or subapical (11/505), or from a sinus (19/505); straight (500/505), or curved (1/505), or flexuous (7/505); 0.1-0.7741-19 length of lemma. Palea 0.6-1.018-2 length of lemma; 2 -veined (578/578). Palea keels smooth (356), or scaberulous (107), or scabrous (164); eciliate (560), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or ciliolate (50), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (571), or puberulous (20), or pubescent (21), or pilose (9). Palea apex entire (3/69), or erose (1/69), or dentate (65/69); muticous (620), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (597/612), or distinct from fertile (15/612); 1 in number (2/2); barren (4/4); rudimentary (1/5), or linear (1/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (13/15), or mucronate (2/15), or awned (2/15). FLOWER Lodicules 1 (1/112), or 2 (111/112); membranous (18/18); glabrous (109/112), or ciliate (5/112); entire (3/15), or with a small lateral lobe (3/15), or 2-toothed (11/15), or irregularly toothed (1/15). Anthers 3 (598/598). Ovary glabrous (251/398), or with a few apical hairs (28/398), or pubescent on apex (131/398). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (578/578); linear (5/165), or lanceolate (15/165), or fusiform (3/165), or ellipsoid (103/165), or oblong (15/165), or ovoid (2/165), or obovoid (29/165), or oblanceolate (1/165); dorsally compressed (1/1); plano-convex (1/2), or concavo-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.1-0.1958-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/564), or linear (562/564); 0.4-0.7649-1 length of caryopsis. MALE Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11). DISTRIBUTION Europe (192), or Africa (67), or Temperate Asia (158), or Tropical Asia (49), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (8), or North America (62), or South America (163), or Antarctica (5).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Ethiopia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Réunion
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Falkland Is.
  • Kerguelen
  • Macquarie Is.
  • South Georgia
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Svalbard
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Aleutian Is.
  • Greenland
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nunavut
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Northern Africa Egypt
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Amsterdam-St.Paul Is.
  • Crozet Is.
  • Marion-Prince Edward Is.
  • Tristan da Cunha
  • Australasia Australia Northern Territory
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Antipodean Is.
  • Southern America Caribbean Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Southern South America Juan Fernández Is.

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do.
  • 2 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.