Ctenium Panz.
  • Denkschr. Königl. Akad. Wiss. München 4: 288 (1813 publ. 1814) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & S. Africa, Madagascar, E. U.S.A. to S. Trop. America

General Description

HABIT Annual (2), or perennial (18). Rhizomes absent (18), or short (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (9/12), or geniculately ascending (3/12); 20-78.75-150 cm long; firm (17), or wiry (3). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (19), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (19); stiff (1), or firm (19); without scent (17), or aromatic (3). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (15), or paired (2), or digitate (6); erect (1), or ascending; unilateral. Rhachis semiterete (18/18); terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (19). Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3.32-6.286-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (2/18), or pilose (15/18). GLUMES Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture (3), or firmer than fertile lemma (17); gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (14), or ovate (6); 0.25-0.348-0.5 length of upper glume; hyaline (7), or membranous (8), or herbaceous (5); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (19), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or pubescent (1), or hispidulous (2). Lower glume apex acute (6), or acuminate (10), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (4); muticous (17), or mucronate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (15), or elliptic (3), or ovate (2); 1.1-1.706-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (3), or herbaceous (17); with undifferentiated margins (7), or hyaline margins (13); 1-keeled; 2 -veined (9), or 3 -veined (11). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (18), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (6), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2), or tuberculate (10); glabrous (15), or puberulous (1), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (3). Upper glume apex acute (6), or acuminate (13), or setaceously attenuate (3); awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn dorsal, or oblique. FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (1/19), or barren (19/19); with palea (1/19), or without significant palea (19/19). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (4/19), or elliptic (9/19), or oblong (5/19), or ovate (2/19); 0.5-0.7419-1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (1/19), or membranous (18/19); 3 -veined (10/10); emarginate (2/18), or truncate (1/18), or obtuse (5/18), or acute (10/18), or cuspidate (1/18); awned (19/19). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or ovate (18); membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (18), or ciliate (2). Lemma surface smooth (19), or scabrous (1); glabrous, or pilose (1); without hair tufts (19), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliate (14), or villous (5). Lemma apex entire (19), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/11), or acute (10/11); muticous (1), or mucronate (1), or awned (18); 1 -awned (18/18). Principal lemma awn apical (1/19), or subapical (17/19), or dorsal (1/19). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (16), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (16), or ciliolate (5). Palea surface glabrous (19), or pubescent (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1); muticous, or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (13/19), or 2 in number (7/19), or 3-4 in number (2/19); male (2/2), or barren (1/2); rudimentary (1/19), or linear (7/19), or lanceolate (2/19), or elliptic (8/19), or oblong (1/19), or ovate (1/19). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (11/19), or mucronate (3/19), or awned (7/19). FLOWER Anthers 3 (1/1). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (19/19); ellipsoid (2/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (1), or North America (4), or South America (7).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Ethiopia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Northeastern U.S.A. New Jersey
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Virginia
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Central America Panamá
  • Northern South America Suriname
  • Southern South America Paraguay
  • Western South America Colombia
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia (Doubtful)

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.