Aristida L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 82 (1753) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop. to Mongolia and N. America

General Description

HABIT Annual (53), or perennial (235). Rhizomes absent (273), or short (10), or elongated (3). Culms erect (121/140), or geniculately ascending (32/140), or decumbent (7/140), or prostrate (1/140), or rambling (1/140); robust (12/27), or slender (15/27); 2-57.43-200 cm long; firm (263), or wiry (20), or woody (1); without nodal roots (1/2), or rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (11/14), or elliptical in section (3/14). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/6), or swollen (5/6). Lateral branches lacking (92/158), or sparse (54/158), or ample (31/158), or fastigiate (9/158), or suffrutescent (1/158). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (11), or a fringe of hairs (273). Leaf-blades aciculate (4), or filiform (58), or linear (231); herbaceous (278), or coriaceous (6); stiff (22), or firm (262). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (2/14), or cartilaginous (12/14). Leaf-blade apex muticous (281), or pungent (3). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; terminal (283), or terminal and axillary (1); not deciduous as a whole (283), or deciduous as a whole (1); exserted (282), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (160), or contracted (114), or spiciform (26), or capitate (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (283), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets appressed (15/16), or spreading (1/16); solitary (247/249), or in pairs (2/249). Fertile spikelets sessile (27/248), or sessile and pedicelled (1/248), or pedicelled (220/248). Pedicels filiform (7/9), or oblong (1/9), or clavate (1/9); tip widened (3/3). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (112/249), or lanceolate (135/249), or oblong (1/249), or cuneate (1/249); laterally compressed (5), or subterete (279); 2-11.51-66 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (11), or evident (138), or elongated (135); without wings (282), or winged (2); pubescent (183/279), or pilose (66/279), or bearded (30/279); truncate (8), or obtuse (107), or acute (122), or pungent (42), or 2-toothed (11). GLUMES Glumes persistent (171/182), or lower deciduous, upper persistent (3/182), or deciduous (8/182); shorter than spikelet (34/248), or reaching apex of florets (60/248), or exceeding apex of florets (182/248); thinner than fertile lemma (249), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (35); parallel to lemmas (283), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (62), or lanceolate (226), or oblong (2); 0.3-0.8632-4 length of upper glume; membranous (236/249), or chartaceous (3/249), or scarious (10/249); 1-keeled (153/153); 1 -veined (231/269), or 2 -veined (20/269), or 3 -veined (49/269), or 4 -veined (9/269), or 5 -veined (11/269), or 6-7 -veined (5/269). Lower glume lateral veins absent (202), or obscure (9), or distinct (84). Lower glume surface smooth (218), or asperulous (65), or scabrous (60); glabrous (278), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (2), or hispid (1), or woolly (1). Lower glume apex entire (262), or dentate (22), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (23/23); emarginate (14/258), or obtuse (19/258), or acute (124/258), or acuminate (122/258), or attenuate (16/258), or setaceously attenuate (48/258), or cuspidate (2/258); muticous (191), or mucronate (50), or awned (73). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (69), or lanceolate (216), or oblong (3), or cuneate (1); 0.4-1.474-6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (236/249), or chartaceous (3/249), or scarious (10/249); with undifferentiated margins (283), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (2/151), or 1-keeled (149/151); 1 -veined (262/266), or 2 -veined (8/266), or 3 -veined (12/266). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (283), or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (265), or asperulous (30), or scabrous (23); glabrous (281), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (2), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1), or woolly (1). Upper glume apex entire (221), or erose (2), or dentate (63), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (65/66), or 3 -fid (1/66); emarginate (26/224), or truncate (7/224), or obtuse (23/224), or acute (100/224), or acuminate (101/224), or attenuate (12/224), or setaceously attenuate (40/224), or caudate (1/224); muticous (165), or mucronate (70), or awned (76); 1 -awned (70/70). FLORETS Fertile lemma linear (112/250), or lanceolate (79/250), or elliptic (54/250), or oblong (5/250), or ovate (1/250); laterally compressed (14), or subterete (271); oblong in profile (1/1); coriaceous (249/249); without keel (223/256), or keeled (33/256); 3 -veined (280/281), or 5 -veined (1/281). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (263), or scaberulous (9), or scabrous (18). Lemma surface smooth (164), or granulose (4), or asperulous (7), or scaberulous (63), or scabrous (59), or papillose (7), or tuberculate (12), or punctate (4); without grooves (274), or with a median groove (10); glabrous (280), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or villous (1), or hispid (1). Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (50), or convolute (235); exposing palea (36), or covering most of palea (248). Lemma apex entire (283), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (137/146), or acuminate (3/146), or attenuate (1/146), or rostrate (5/146); without ornament (282), or scabrous (2); without appendage (272), or with a short cylindrical neck (10), or with outer margin prolonged as a hyaline appendage (2); muticous (1), or awned; 1 -awned (17), or 3 -awned (275). Principal lemma awn apical (283), or from a sinus (1); straight (133), or curved (12), or flexuous (5), or coiled (1), or geniculate (11), or 3-branched (136); attenuate (283), or pungent (1). Column of lemma awn glabrous (126/128), or puberulous (1/128), or pubescent (2/128). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (139/275), or shorter than principal (148/275). Palea present (283), or absent or minute (1); 0.1-0.1836-1 length of lemma; hyaline (11/283), or membranous (272/283); 0 -veined (8/14), or 2 -veined (6/14); without keels (131/283), or 2-keeled (152/283). Palea apex entire (1/2), or dentate (2/2). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (20/20); membranous (1/2), or fleshy (1/2); glabrous (19/20), or ciliate (1/20); truncate (1/3), or obtuse (1/3), or acute (1/3). Anthers 3 (232/232). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (101/101); linear (10/32), or lanceolate (1/32), or fusiform (20/32), or ellipsoid (1/32). Embryo 0.2-0.335-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (72/73), or curved (1/73); 0.2-0.4653-1 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (70), or Temperate Asia (23), or Tropical Asia (25), or Australasia (59), or Pacific (5), or North America (50), or South America (100).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • Europe Southeastern Europe Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Sicilia
  • Southwestern Europe Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific South-Central Pacific Marquesas
  • Southwestern Pacific New Caledonia
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Aruba
  • Bahamas
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Turks-Caicos Is.
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Japan
  • Australasia New Zealand New Zealand North
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • South-Central Pacific Tubuai Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Vanuatu

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.