Setaria P.Beauv.
  • Ess. Agrostogr.: 51 (1812) 


Notes: , nom. cons.

General Description

HABIT Annual (37), or perennial (66). Rhizomes absent (85), or short (14), or elongated (6). Stolons absent (102), or present (4). Culms erect (50/78), or geniculately ascending (52/78), or decumbent (5/78), or rambling (2/78), or leaning (1/78), or scandent (1/78); robust (13/21), or of moderate stature (1/21), or slender (3/21), or weak (4/21); 4-85.71-400 cm long; firm (101), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (8/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/8), or channelled (2/8), or elliptical in section (6/8). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (14/30), or sparse (11/30), or ample (13/30), or fastigiate (1/30). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (26), or a fringe of hairs (74), or absent (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (97), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1), or with a false petiole (10). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear (90), or lanceolate (28), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (102), or coriaceous (1); stiff (10), or firm (86), or flaccid (8). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (6/6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (6/6). Leaf-blade apex muticous (102), or pungent (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (101), or composed of racemes (2); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (28/101), or contracted (11/101), or spiciform (64/101). Primary panicle branches not whorled (84/85), or whorled at most nodes (2/85); without sterile bristles (4/85), or sterile at the tips (81/85). Racemes borne along a central axis (2/2); unilateral (1/1). Rhachis angular (1/1); terminating in a barren extension (2/2); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (7/102), or in pairs (1/102), or subtended by an involucre (97/102). Fertile spikelets sessile (35/100), or sessile and pedicelled (2/100), or pedicelled (64/100); 1 in the cluster (87/97), or 2 in the cluster (15/97), or 3 in the cluster (16/97), or 4 in the cluster (9/97), or 5 in the cluster (6/97), or 6 in the cluster (5/97), or 7-8 in the cluster (3/97), or 9 in the cluster (1/97). Involucre composed of bristles (97/97). Involucral bristles persistent (97/97); 0-4-15 in principal whorl; flexible (71/78), or rigid (7/78); obtuse (1/97), or attenuate (96/97). Pedicels oblong (47/56), or reduced to a stump (9/56); tip discoid (1/7), or cupuliform (6/7). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (38), or oblong (8), or ovate (57), or orbicular (13), or obovate (4); of unremarkable solid shape (102), or hemispherical (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); symmetrical (70), or gibbous (32), or plano-convex (1); 1.2-2.526-4.6 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (102). Floret callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2). GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (89), or reaching apex of florets (25), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (93), or orbicular (12), or oblate (1); clasping (9/9); hyaline (5), or membranous (99); without keels; 0 -veined (1/99), or 1 -veined (10/99), or 2 -veined (6/99), or 3 -veined (83/99), or 4 -veined (29/99), or 5 -veined (38/99), or 6 -veined (2/99), or 7 -veined (3/99). Lower glume lateral veins absent (6), or obscure (1), or distinct (96), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex truncate (7/101), or obtuse (33/101), or acute (72/101), or acuminate (3/101), or cuspidate (1/101); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Upper glume elliptic (17), or oblong (3), or ovate (84), or orbicular (2); not gibbous (97), or gibbous (6); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (102); with undifferentiated margins (102), or chartaceous margins (1); without keels (102), or 1-keeled (1); 3-6-11 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (101), or scabrous (2); glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/99), or obtuse (33/99), or acute (62/99), or acuminate (2/99), or cuspidate (5/99); muticous (100), or mucronate (3). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (33), or barren (81); with palea (90), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (19/102), or oblong (4/102), or ovate (79/102); 1-1.062-1.2 length of fertile lemma; membranous (99), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (1); 3-4 -veined (2/98), or 5 -veined (90/98), or 6 -veined (18/98), or 7 -veined (26/98); without grooves (93), or sulcate (11); obtuse (15/95), or acute (73/95), or acuminate (2/95), or setaceously attenuate (1/95), or cuspidate (5/95). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (89/90), or membranous (1/90). Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (20), or oblong (4), or ovate (78), or orbicular (3), or trullate (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); not gibbous (15), or gibbous (88); cartilaginous (1/102), or indurate (101/102); without keel (100), or keeled (3); 3 -veined (1/2), or 5 -veined (1/2). Lemma surface smooth (96), or granulose (1), or scaberulous (1), or striate (3), or punctate (4); unwrinkled (29), or rugulose (38), or rugose (37), or corrugate (6). Lemma margins involute; eciliate (102), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (6/56), or acute (26/56), or acuminate (1/56), or apiculate (25/56), or rostrate (1/56); without ornament (101), or scabrous (1), or pubescent (1); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Palea not rolled (1), or involute (102); 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or indurate (101). Palea keels eciliate (101), or ciliolate (2). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (7/7). Anthers 3 (25/25). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); ellipsoid (9/18), or ovoid (6/18), or orbicular (6/18); dorsally compressed (2/2); plano-convex (2/2). Embryo 0.5-0.6633-0.9 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (13/13). DISTRIBUTION Europe (5), or Africa (43), or Temperate Asia (18), or Tropical Asia (16), or Australasia (16), or Pacific (9), or North America (27), or South America (48).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Kazan-retto
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Laccadive Is.
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Europe Eastern Europe Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • Krym
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Masachusettes
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Pacific Southwestern Pacific New Caledonia
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Bahamas
  • Bermuda
  • Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Turks-Caicos Is.
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Central American Pacific Is.
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Desventurados Is.
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Equatorial Guinea
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Maldives
  • Australasia New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • East European Russia
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • North-Central U.S.A. Minnesota
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Maine
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Montana
  • Wyoming
  • Subarctic America Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marcus I.
  • Marianas
  • Marshall Is.
  • Wake I.
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Easter Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Pitcairn Is.
  • Society Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.