Hordeum L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 84 (1753) 


Notes: Distribution: Temp. Eurasia, Macaronesia, N. & S. Africa, N. America to Guatemala, Bermuda, Peru to S. South America

General Description

HABIT Annual (10), or perennial (27). Rhizomes absent, or short (1). Culms erect (19/24), or geniculately ascending (14/24); slender (1/1); 3-49.84-150 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles absent (25), or falcate (17). Ligule an eciliate membrane (34), or a ciliolate membrane (2). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (35); stiff (2), or firm (34). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (35), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (7). Racemes single; erect (1), or ascending (35); linear (35), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); bilateral; bearing 20-44 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 45 fertile spikelets on each (2/2). Rhachis tough (4), or fragile at the nodes (33); wingless (33), or narrowly winged (3); flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 2 -rowed (2/4), or 6 -rowed (2/4). Rhachis internodes oblong (30), or cuneate (6); falling with spikelet above (33/33). Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (1); 1 in the cluster (34), or 3 in the cluster (3). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (2/34), or pedicelled (33/34); 0 in the cluster (1/34), or 2 in the cluster (34/34). Pedicels oblong (32/32). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (3), or well-developed (34); persistent (3/34), or deciduous with the fertile (32/34). Companion sterile spikelet glumes awned (2/2). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (14), or with a barren rhachilla extension (24), or with diminished florets at the apex (2). Spikelets lanceolate (34), or ovate (1), or cuneate (1); dorsally compressed; 4-10.58-55 mm long; persistent on plant (3), or falling entire (33), or breaking up at maturity (1); deciduous with accessory branch structures (33/33); disarticulating below each fertile floret (1/1). GLUMES Glumes collateral; shorter than spikelet (9/21), or reaching apex of florets (4/21), or exceeding apex of florets (11/21); parallel to lemmas (10), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (25). Lower glume subulate (23), or linear (7), or lanceolate (7); 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous (12/12); 2-3 -veined (1/1). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (35). Lower glume surface smooth (25), or scabrous (11); glabrous (31), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hispidulous (2). Lower glume apex acuminate (3/7), or setaceously attenuate (4/7); muticous (7/13), or awned (6/13). Upper glume subulate (23), or linear (7), or lanceolate (7); 0.3-0.7917-1.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous (12/12); 2-3 -veined (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (27), or scabrous (9); glabrous (31), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hispidulous (2). Upper glume apex acuminate (3/7), or setaceously attenuate (4/7); muticous (7/13), or awned (6/13); 1 -awned (6/6). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (30), or elliptic (4), or ovate (3); coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined (35), or 7-9 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/4), or prominent (1/4). Lemma surface smooth (24), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (5), or scabrous (7); glabrous (30), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (5), or pilose (1). Lemma apex entire (35), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); acuminate (34/35), or attenuate (1/35); without appendage (35), or with a trilobate appendage (1); muticous (4), or awned (35); 1 -awned (35/35). Principal lemma awn straight (34/35), or curved (1/35). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels eciliate (35), or ciliate (1). Apical sterile florets rudimentary (2/2). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (13/13); membranous (1/1); glabrous (4/13), or ciliate (10/13); obtuse (1/4), or acute (4/4). Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent on apex. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (4/6), or ovoid (2/6). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (10), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (3), or North America (10), or South America (25), or Antarctica (3).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Selvagens
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • West Tropical Africa Mauritania
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Korea
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Aleutian Is.
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nunavut
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Caribbean Bermuda
  • Central America Guatemala
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Western Sahara
  • Southern Africa KwaZulu-Natal
  • West Tropical Africa Niger
  • Nigeria
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Falkland Is.
  • Kerguelen
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Oman
  • China China Southeast
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Sri Lanka
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Northwest European Russia
  • Northern Europe Finland
  • Iceland
  • Norway
  • Northern America Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Subarctic America Greenland
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • South-Central Pacific Easter Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Southern America Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.